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Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

AMMR
Airborne Miltichannel Microwave Radiometer, operates aboard mid altitude aircraft.

AMMS
Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder, operates aboard high altitude aircraft.

AMPR
Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer, operates aboard high altitude aircraft.

API
Application Programming Interface

ARMAR
Airborne Rain Mapping Radar.

Ascending Orbit (AM Orbit)
A polar orbit traversing from the south pole to the north pole. For the NOAA sun synchronous polar orbital satellites this orbit crosses the equator during daylight hours.
AVHRR
Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer.

Browse Data Product
Subsets of a larger data set, generated for the purpose of allowing rapid interrogation (i.e., browse) of the larger data set by a potential user.

CAMEX
Convection and Moisture Experiment.

CPI
Cloud Particle Imager.

CD-ROM
Compact Disc Read-Only Memory.

CLS
Cloud Lidar System.

DAAC
Distributed Active Archive Center.

Data Set
A logically meaningful grouping or collection of similar or related data.

Data Set Documentation
Information describing the characteristics of a data set and its component granules, including format, source instrumentation, calibration, processing, algorithms, etc.

dbZ
Radar reflectivity (unit of measurement).

Descending Orbit (PM Orbit)
A polar orbit traversing from the north pole to the south pole. For the NOAA sun synchronous polar orbital satellites this orbit crosses the equator during nightime hours.
DISC
Data Information and Services Center.
DMSP
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.

ECMWF
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts.

EDOP
ER-2 Doppler Radar.

El nino
This is the most important climate phenomenon known on a multi-year time scale. The name El Nino as been used by Peruvian fishermen for a long time to identify a phenomenon of warming of the ocean surface waters, often occurring at the end of the year and lasting for several months and which induces significant climactic change over the entire world.
EOS
Earth Observing System
EOSAP
Earth Observing System Amazon Project.

EOSDIS
Earth Observing System Data and Information System. This is the facility that will manage the data resulting from NASA's Mission to Planet Earth satellites and field measurement programs, and other data essential for the interpretation of these measurements.

ESA
European Space Agency.

ESMR
Electronically Scanned Microwave Radiometer.

FNMOC
Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (Navy).

FTP
File Transfer Protocol, a mechanism used to transfer files from one system to another.

GCM
Global Circulation Model, a time evolving simulation of the atmosphere using hydrodynamic equations that incorporates satellite measurements of the atmosphere with in-situ measurements to constrain the model. It can be used to interpolate between satellite and in-situ measurements or to predict future states of the atmosphere on a time scale of hours up to a few days.
GDS
GeoMet Data Services.

GEWEX
Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment.

GHz
Gigahertz.

GMS
Geostationary Meteorological Satellite.

GMT
Greenwich Mean Time.

GOES
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite.

GPCC
Global Precipitation Climatology Center.

GPCP
Global Precipitation Climatology Project.

GPROF
Goddard Profiling Algorithm.

Granule
The smallest aggregation of data that is independently managed (i.e., described, inventoried, retrievable).

GSFC
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, MD).

GOES
Geostationary Orbiting Earth Satellite.

Guide
A uniform set of detailed descriptions for one or more data sets and related entities, containing information suitable for determining the location and content of each data set and its potential usefulness for a specific application.
HDF
Hierarchical Data Format.
HDF-EOS
Hierachical Data Format (HDF)-Earth Observing System. An extention of the HDF, Version 4 developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.
HIRS/2
High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder 2. The HIRS/2 instrument measures radiation emitted by the Earth- atmosphere system in 19 regions of the infrared spectrum between 3.7 and 15 microns. A visible channel is also available to measure the albedo of Earth's surface.
HIS
High resolution Interferometer Sounder.

HVPS
High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer.

IEEE
The Institute of Electronical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
IMS
Information Management System; in this context, "IMS" refers to the EOSDIS Information Management System used to access DAAC data.

In-situ Measurements
Measurements of a phenomena at the spatial location where the phenomena is occurring such as by a radiosonde or a ship as opposed to remotely sensed data as by a satellite.
IR
Infrared.

kPa
Kilo-Pascals.

KWAJEX
Kwajalein Experiment, 1999 TRMM validation experiment
Landsat
Land Remote Sensing Satellite.

LIP
Lightning Instrument Package.

LIS
Lightning Imaging Sensor.

MAS
MODIS Airborne Simulator, a 50-channel spectro-radiometer mounted on NASA's high altitude aricraft.

METEOSAT
A geosynchronous meteorology satellite (European Space Agency).

MIR
Millimeter Imaging Radiometer, a microwave imager mounted on high altitude aircraft.
MSFC
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, Alabama).
MSU
The Microwave Sounding Unit instrument is a four channel Dicke radiometer making passive microwave radiation measurements in four regions of the 50 GHz oxygen emission spectrum.
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NCSA
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
NESDIS
National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service.

NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

NWS
National Weather Service.

OLR
Outgoing Longwave Radiation, energy radiated away from the atmosphere to space, integated over all frequencies in the earth's infrared spectrum (generally 2 to 20 microns)
Polar Orbit
An orbit passing nearly over the poles.
Radiosonde
A device carried by a weather balloon that measures atmospheric pressure, temperature, and moisture and transmits the measurements by radio to a ground station. There is a world wide network of radiosondes providing atmospheric measurements up to 4 times daily.
Raw Data
Data in their original form as received from the instrument.
SCSMEX
South China Sea Monsoon Experiment.
SDS
Scientific Data Set - A term used in the HDF file formats.
SMMR
Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer.

Spatial Resolution
the size of the smallest object recognizable using the detector.
SSM/I
Special Sensor Microwave/Imager.

SSU
Stratospheric Sounding Unit, a three channel pressure modulated radiometer for sensing radiances emitted from the stratospheric part of the atmosphere.
Sun Synchronous
An orbit that passes over the equator at the same local time each day.
TDR
Temperature Data Record (synonymous with Antenna Temperature).

TEFLUN
Texas and Florida Underflights.

Tg
Tera-grams.

TOGA
Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere.

TOGA/COARE
TOGA/Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment.

TOVS
Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder, a suit of three instruments that measures upwelling radiation from the atmosphere from which surface properties, clouds, and the vertical structure of the atmosphere can be determined.
TRMM
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (U.S.-Japan), satellite launched in 1997 to measure rainfall in the global tropics.
TRMM-LBA
TRMM-Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, 1999 TRMM validation experiment.

WetNet
Network for Distribution and Joint Analysis of SSM/I Data.

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Last updated: Sep 09, 2009 02:26 PM ET
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