1973:Rowland and Molina first discover that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can destroy stratospheric
1974:First government hearings are held on the CFC-ozone theory.
1975:Natural Resources Defense Council sues Consumer Product Safety Commission for a ban on
CFCs used in aerosol spray cans. Lawsuit is rejected due to insufficient evidence that CFCs harm the
1976:National Academy of Sciences releases report verifying Rowland-Molina hypothesis, but
recommends postponing government action.
1977:The United Nations Environmental Programme holds first international meeting to discuss
1978:United States bans CFCs used in aerosols.
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is launched aboard the NIMBUS-7 spacecraft.
1984:Ozone loss of 40% is detected over Antarctica during austral spring.
1985:Vienna Convention, calling for additional research, is signed.
Satellite images show existence of an Antarctic ozone hole.
1986:International negotiations resume in Geneva.United States requests global CFC
reductions of 95% over the next 10 years.
1987:Montreal Protocol, for CFC reductions of 50% by 1999, is signed.
Antarctic studies find chlorine to be primary cause of ozone depletion.
1988:Ozone losses of 1.7 to 3% are measured over Northern Hemisphere.
1990:International delegates meet in London to strengthen the Montreal Protocol and agree to a
complete phaseout of CFCs by 2000.
1991: Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) is launched.
Meteor-3 TOMS is launched.
Mt. Pinatubo erupts, increasing natural levels of atmospheric chlorine.
Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE I) studies northern vortex.
1992: Record levels of ClO, 1.5 parts per billion, are measured over Bangor, Maine.Ozone
depletion rates of up to 20% are found in the Northern Hemisphere.Maximum losses of 40 to 45%
discovered over Russia.
Parties to the Montreal Protocol meet in Geneva and agree to a 75%reduction in CFCs by 1994 and
overall phaseout by January of 1996.
Production grace period, to supply CFCs for essential purposes and the needs of developing countries,
is extended to 2006.
1993: The TOMS aboard Nimbus 7 fails on May 6.
1994:The Meteor-3 TOMS fails on December 27.
1995: Professor Paul Crutzen, Professor Mario Molina, and Professor F. Sherwood Rowland receive
the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
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