18 km resolution global and regional composites of derived geophysical parameters.
CZCS, which operated from November 2, 1978 to June 22, 1986, was a multi-spectral line scanner devoted principally to measurements of ocean color. It had six spectral bands (channels), four of which were devoted to ocean color, each having a 20 nanometer bandwidth and centered at 443, 520, 550, and 670 nanometers. These are referred to as channels 1 through 4, respectively. Channel 5 sensed reflected solar radiance and had a 100 nanometer bandwidth centered at 750 nanometers and a dynamic range which was more suited to land. Channel 6 operated in the 10.5 to 12.5 micrometer region and sensed emitted thermal radiance for derivation of equivalent black body temperature.
This document describes the level 3 18-km resolution DSP (PST and COMP format) Coastal Zone Color Scanner data products archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). Other CZCS data products archived at Goddard include 4 km resolution CZCS level 1A & 2 products in HDF format and CZCS level 1 1-km resolution data. The characteristics of the CZCS Sensor are described in the Coastal Zone Color Scanner Sensor Guide and the Nimbus 7 platform is described in the Nimbus 7 Platform Guide.
Table of Contents
- Document Information
- Dataset Information
- Theory of Measurements
- Data Granularity
- Data Description
- Data Manipulations
- Application of the Dataset
- Dataset Plans
- Related Software
- Data Access
- Output Products and Availability
- Glossary of Terms
- List of Acronyms
Coastal Zone Color Scanner
- Dr. Gene Feldman
- Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 610.2.3
- Greenbelt, MD 20771
- email: email@example.com
- Dr. Chuck McClain
- McClain - Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 971
- Greenbelt, MD 20771
- email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Dr. Wayne Esaias
- Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 971
- Greenbelt, MD 20771
- email: email@example.com
- CZCS Data -
- Dr. Gene Feldman
- Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 610.2.3
- Greenbelt, MD 20771
- email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Software -
- Dr. Bob Evans
- University of Miami, RSMAS/MPO
- 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway
- Miami, FL 33149
- email: email@example.com
For most regions of the world, the color of the ocean is determined primarily by the abundance of phytoplankton and their associated photosynthetic pigments. As the concentration of phytoplankton pigments increases, ocean color shifts from blue to green. The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) was a multi-spectral line scanner developed by NASA to measure ocean color as a means of determining chlorophyll concentrations and the distributions of particulate matter and dissolved substances.
The purpose of the CZCS on Nimbus-7 was to obtain data on the temporal and spatial distribution of phytoplankton biomass and primary production, a better understanding of processes regulating the growth of phytoplankton, and uinsight into the ultimate fate of this organically fixed carbon. Satellite observations of ocean color were necessary to provide reliable estimates of marine phytoplankton biomass on synoptic scales useful in studies of phytoplankton biological dynamics. The mission objectives for the CZCS were to obtain observations of ocean color and temperature, particularly in the coastal zones, which would provide data with sufficient spatial and spectral resolution for the following applications:
- Measure concentrations of chlorophyll-a and phaeophytin.
- Map biologically productive areas.
- Map suspended sediment distribution and determine the type of materials suspended in the water.
- Map Gelbstoffe (yellow substances) as an indicator of salinity.
- Detect pollutants in the upper level of the oceans.
- Map temperature of coastal waters and the open ocean.
- Study the interactions between coastal effluents and open waters.
The Level 3 monthly and seasonal composites are arithmetic averages of radiances and pigment concentrations for all pixels containing valid data from daily composite images. The annual composite is based on 12 monthly composites, (not 365 daily composites). None are true means. For example, the values shown in the Beaufort Sea in the annual composite do not include any winter values when it was covered by ice. The climatologies (for the month of June as an example) are based upon arithmetic averages of pigment for the month of June in the years 1979 through 1986.
Organic and inorganic particulate matter or dissolved substances suspended in water affect its color. Ocean water containing very little particulate matter scatters as a Rayleigh scatterer, producing the well-known deep purple or bluish color of the open sea. As particulate matter is added to the water, its light scattering characteristics change such that different water colors are observed. Phytoplankton, for instance, have specific absorption characteristics and normally change the water to a more greenish hue, although some phytoplankton (such as various "red tide" organisms) can change the water to colors such as red, yellow, blue-green or mahogany. Inorganic particulate matter in water, such as the terrigenous outflow from rivers, has a different color from organic material, typically brownish in color but sometimes varying with red. Differentiating between suspended organic and inorganic matter remains a challenge to ocean color scientists today. By sensing the color with very high signal-to-noise ratios in several narrow bands, CZCS provided a mechanism for correlating water color with its contents for the first time.
CZCS was launched aboard Nimbus-7 in October 1978. Due to the power demands of the various onboard experiments, the CZCS operated on an intermittent schedule. The infra-red/temperature sensor (channel 6 10.5-12.5 microns) failed within the first year. During 1981, it was determined that the sensitivity of the other CZCS sensors was degrading with time, in particular channel 4. Sensitivity degradation was persistent and increased during the rest of the mission.
CZCS had a scan width of 1556 km centered on nadir, and the ground resolution was 0.825 km at nadir. Channels 1-4 were devoted to ocean color, each having 20 nanometer bandwidth and centered at 443, 520, 550, and 670 nanometers respectively. Channel 5 sensed reflected solar radiance, but had a 100 nanometer bandwidth centered at 750 nanometers and a dynamic range which was more suited to land. Channel 6 operated in the 10.5 to 12.5 micrometer region and sensed emitted thermal radiance for derivation of equivalent black body temperature. Channel 6 failed early in the mission (see below).
In mid-1984, NIMBUS-7 mission personnel experienced turn-on problems with the CZCS system which were related to power supply problems and the annual lower power summer season of NIMBUS-7. Spontaneous shutdown of the CZCS system also began occurring. These problems persisted for the rest of the mission. From March 9, 1986 to June, 1986, the CZCS system was given highest priority for the collection of a contemporaneous data set of ocean color. It was turned off in June, at the start of the low power season, with the intention of turning it back on in December when power conditions would be more favorable. Attempts to reactivate CZCS in December 1986 failed. The CZCS sensor was officially declared non-operational on 18 December 1986.
- Nimbus-7, launched in October 1978, was a research-and-development satellite serving as a stabilized, earth-observing platform for the testing of advanced systems for sensing and collecting data in the pollution, oceanographic, and meteorological disciplines. It provided an opportunity to assess each instrument's operation in the space environment and to collect a sizable body of data with the global and seasonal coverage needed for support of each experiment. The mission also extended and refined the sounding and atmospheric structure measurement capabilities demonstrated by experiments on previous Nimbus observatories.
Nimbus-7 sensors included a limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS), stratospheric and mesopheric sounder (SAMS), coastal-zone color scanner (CZCS), stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM II), earth radiation budget (ERB), scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), solar backscatter UV and total ozone mapping spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS), and temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR). These sensors were capable of observing several parameters at and below the mesosphere. After 11 years in orbit, three experiments, SAM II, SBUV/TOMS, and ERB, were still functioning successfully. Nimbus 7 was finally retired in 1995.
Nominal orbit parameters for the Nimbus-7 spacecraft were:
Launch date 10/24/78
Orbit Sun-synchronous, near polar
Nominal Altitude (km) 955
Inclination (deg) 104.9
Nodal Period (min.) 104
Equator Crossing Time 1200 noon (ascending)
Nodal Increment (deg) 26.1
CZCS was a cross-track scanning system. The Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) of each detector was .865 mrad, yielding a resolution of 825 m at the satellite subpoint. The swath covered 1566 km in width from a maximum scan angle of approximately 40 degrees. 1970 samples per scan were collected for channels 1-6. This yielded 94,560 samples per second with an 8 bit (256 level) quantizing resolution. Data were then transmitted to a receiving station at a rate of 800 kbps.
- Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation , (http://www.ballaerospace.com/).
- Prelaunch calibration of the CZCS used a 76 cm diameter integrating sphere as a source of diffuse radiance for channels 1 through 5, and a blackbody source for calibration of channel 6. The integrating sphere was especially constructed for calibration of the CZCS, and was calibrated by a standard lamp from the National Bureau of Standards, utilizing a spectrometer and another integrating sphere to transfer calibration from the lamp to the sphere.
In addition to the sphere and the blackbody, a collimator was used to calibrate the CZCS in vacuum testing. In-flight calibration of the CZCS is accomplished for the first five bands by using a built-in incandescent light source. This in-flight calibration source was calibrated using the instrument itself as a transfer against the referenced sphere output.
Channel 6 was calibrated by viewing the blackened housing of the instrument whose temperature was monitored. Deep space is another calibration source viewed during the 360 degree rotation of the scan mirror.
For further details on the CZCS sensor and the Nimbus 7 satellite, please consult The Coastal Zone Color Scanner Starter Kit, (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/oceancolor/docs/CZCS_Starter_kit.shtml>) and the Nimbus 7 Platform Guide , (http://podaac-www.jpl.nasa.gov:2031/SOURCE_DOCS/nimbus7.html).
- The raw data from the six channels of the CZCS were either directly transmitted to the ground station in real-time or recorded on the satellite tape recorder for later playback and transmission to the ground station. Data were stored on magnetic tape and sent to the Image Processing Division (IPD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In addition to radiance measurements, these data also include the calibration lamp data and Image Location Data (ILT).
- (This information is not available for CZCS.)
- (This information is not available for CZCS.)
Each Level 1 granule is a partial orbital swath with a maximum of 2 minutes of data. One two-minute CZCS scene covers approximately 1.3 million square kilometers of the Earth's surface. Each Level 3 granule is either a single global or regional composite representing a daily, weekly, monthly or annual average.
- Spatial Coverage is global with an emphasis on coastal regions. Spatial coverage varied widely and was very irregular. The first plot below shows a composite of the spatial coverage for the entire CZCS mission while the following 9 plots show the geographic distribution of CZCS data for each of the nine years from 1978-1986. Each dot on these plots represents the center point of one CZCS Level 1 scene. These images show the irregular spatial distribution of the CZCS data set graphically.
Level 3 CZCS scenes have a spatial resolution at nadir of 18.5 km for photosynthetic pigment distribution. Level 3 composite data is plotted on an Equal Angle Grid. The data are binned to a fixed, linear latitude-longitude (equal angle) grid of dimension 1024 (latitude) x 2048 (longitude), with an approximate 18.5 km resolution at the equator. Both full global and selected sectored regional images are available. The regional images have the following upper left corner (ulc) and lower right corner (lrc) latitudes and longitudes:
REGION ulc lat.,lon. lrc lat.,lon.
North Atlantic 69.873, -88.506 -19.951, 1.318
N.E. Pacific 61.260, -162.334 -28.564, -72.500
South America 19.600, -114.873 -70.225, -25.049
Mediterranean 69.873, -34.014 -19.951, 55.811
India 31.025, 10.811 -58.799, 100.635
Japan 66.812, 89.912 -23.643, 179.736
Australia 16.963, 89.912 -72.861, 179.736
The archive of CZCS data products began on November 2, 1978 and continued until June 22, l986. However, there are several periods of intermittent coverage. When operating full time, approximately 400 Level 1 images were collected each month. In total, over 60,000 Level 1 files were collected during the lifetime of the CZCS instrument. 92 Level 3 global monthly composites were ultimately created from these files. The following figure shows a graphical display of the temporal distribution of the original CZCS Level 1 data set that was used to create the Level 3 products described in this document. Each CZCS scan viewed the Earth for approximately 27.5 microseconds. During this period, each channel of the analog data output was digitized to obtain a total of about 2000 samples. Successive scans occured at the rate of 8 per second. Subsequent coverage of the same geographic area varied greatly from place to place and over the lifetime of the instrument.
Level 3 data contains radiance data and photosynthetic pigment concentration, the latter based on a spectral ratio algorithm that utilized the geophysical parameters of water-leaving radiance calculated for the 443, 520, and 550 nm bands. The raw radiance data collected by the CZCS was atmospherically corrected for atmospheric and aerosol scattering. The radiance data was correlated with pigment concentration using the CZCS NET pigment algorithm and a variety of calibration techniques. The calibration scheme had to be revised during the mission due to both the failure of active calibration and sensor degradation. Level 3 pigment concentrations are expressed in units of mg m^-3 with 18 km by 18 km resolution. CZCS was flown aboard the Nimbus-7 satellite. The CZCS level 3 data is converted from the DSP PST (Postage Stamp) format into the DSP COMP format for display purposes. DSP is a user-interactive satellite data analysis package that was developed at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (University of Miami). DSP operates on either DEC-VAX or Unix Workstation computers. The primary application of this package is for the processing and interpretation of CZCS and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. DSP images can be converted to the SEAPAK format using the SEAPAK package (see description below).
LEVEL 3 FLAT IMAGE FILE FORMAT Several additional time/space composites (climatological, seasonal, annual, regional) also exist as single parameter images. These are available as flat data files, without any headers, metadata or compositing statistics. These include full resolution global 2048 (longitude) x 1024 (latitude) pixel images as well as reduced resolution global 512 x 512 pixel images subsampled from the full global images with a 4 x 2 reduction factor. These regional images (spatial coordinates tabulated in section 9 above) are 512 x 512 pixel images at full resolution of the global product. They are simply a sector of the full global 2048 x 1024 composite grid. They are composed of 512 records, each record 512 eight bit bytes and each pixel value given by a count ranging between 0 and 255. Please consult the CZCS README file available from the GSFC DAAC for further information on these level 3 flat image files.
Other ocean color data sets include SeaWiFS, MOS-PRIRODA, OCTS and some airborne data collected by NASA and NOAA. Many investigations benefit from correlating CZCS data with available in situ and sea surface temperature data.
More information is on our Satellite Based Ocean Color Instruments page.
The greatest problems encountered in analyzing the CZCS data are in the correction for atmospheric interference and differentiating between chlorophyll concentrations and suspended inorganic substances. In the visible portion of the spectrum, the largest contribution to the signal received by CZCS was from the atmosphere. Rayleigh and aerosol scattering in the atmosphere must be compensated for before a high degree of accuracy in the determination of pigment concentration and diffuse attenuation coefficient can be obtained.
The calibration procedure is quite complex and will not be discussed in detail here. In essence, the Rayleigh component is assumed constant and can be subtracted from the signal. Aerosol scattering is variable and is measured by assuming that the red region of the spectrum is completely absorbed by the ocean surface and is therefore returning no signal to the instrument. From this assumption, aerosol scattering can be calculated for the rest of the visible spectrum. References 11.2.b and 11.2.c describe these principles in detail. The final data are in the form of calibrated radiances.
Chlorophyll concentration algorithms were used to reduce the data produced from the Level 1 radiance data to Level 2 pigment concentration imagery. These algorithms use radiance data ratios to determine concentrations. Channels 1 and 3 were used for concentrations less than 1.5 mg/m**3 and channels 2 and 3 for concentrations above that level. These algorithms also account for the atmospheric scattering present, both Rayleigh and aerosol, by empirical coefficients in the equations for concentration. The Rayleigh component was assumed constant and can be subtracted from the signal. Aerosol scattering is variable and was measured by assuming that the red region of the spectrum is completely absorbed by the ocean surface and is therefore returning no signal to the instrument. At Goddard Space Flight Center the data were converted from voltages to radiances for bands 1 through 5, and to equivalent blackbody temperatures for band 6. The Level 1 radiance data were used to produce black and white images. Algorithms developed by the CZCS Nimbus Experiment Team were then applied to produce Level 1A and 2 data for pigments, suspended particulates and dissolved substances in oceanic waters. These algorithms have continued to evolve since the beginning of data collection, especially for retrieval of water properties in sediment-laden coastal regions. The entire CZCS digital archive was later converted from the original 1600-bpi magnetic tape to Sony digital optical disk at Goddard Space Flight Center. 38,000 nine track magnetic tapes were read 24 hours per day, 7 days per week for 18 months in order to transfer the data to approximately 185, 12 inch optical discs. The newly archived data format was nearly identical to the Calibrated Radiance and Temperature Tape (CRTT) product. These optical platters are now stored at the Goddard DAAC and remain a primary archive for the CZCS data set.
- Some Level 1 scenes were flagged as containing unreliable data and were not included in the Level 3 composites, but are still available from the Goddard DAAC. During ingest into the Goddard DAAC, metadata contained in the Level 1 files were accessed and used to produce a comprehensive and consistent database for all CZCS holdings. Many duplicate files and errors were eliminated in this first effort. In 1996 the metadata themselves were reviewed, uncovering several types of navigational errors. Based on that analysis, the database was updated and corrected again. The corrected database entries now provide the framework for operational browse and request processing. In situ data useful for CZCS applications are available at: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/oceancolor/dataprod/OC_Dataproducts.shtml. SeaBASS is a product of the Calibration/Validation element of the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project. SeaBASS provides an interface to the Project's holdings of bio-optical and laboratory instrument calibration data. The interface allows access to over 1000 individual data files provided by numerous investigators.
Currently, the SeaBASS bio-optical holdings include radiometric data and in situ pigments collected as part of these experiments:
Nimbus Experiment Team (NET)
U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)
Bermuda Bio-Optical Program (BBOP)
CHORS/British Ocean Flux Study (BOFS)
Bermuda Area Time Series (BATS)
Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS)
NORTH SEA Experiments
SeaBASS also includes instrument calibration data collected as part of SIRREX-1, SIRREX-2, and eventually SIRREX-3/4/5. New data sets are received and archived on a regular basis. SeaBASS is described in much greater detail in Volume 20 of the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series (NASA Tech. Memorandum 104566). You may request a copy of Vol. 20 via the SeaWiFS TM Series order form from the Goddard DAAC Helpdesk via email or phone:firstname.lastname@example.org, (301) 614-5224. CZCS performed better than its design requirements for signal-to-noise ratio in all channels. The table below shows the minimum signal-to-noise ratio specified for the instrument at its most sensitive gain setting. In the worst case, the chlorophyll concentration can be determined within a factor of 2 of the actual concentration.
Band Ratio (mW/cm**2-ster) Radiance NETD Temp
1 150 5.41
2 140 3.50
3 125 2.86
4 100 1.34
5 100 10.8
6 N/A N/A 0.220K 270K
No additional measurement error assessments are available. No additional quality assesments are available. The Goddard DAAC has not performed data verification on the CZCS dataset. Only metadata verification has been performed.
(Please refer to Section 4.) The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is scheduled to launch in 1997 as a follow-on to CZCS. Users should refer to the SeaWiFS Project homepage for the latest information on SeaWiFS:
- The internal metadata in the header and trailer documentation records for Level 1 files is known to be erroneous in several instances. The Goddard DAAC's database has been corrected, but the individual header and trailer records have not been corrected. Several assumptions in the atmospheric correction of the data during data processing resulted in an accuracy of 35% in ocean color measurements in Case 1 waters (chlorophyll and associated pigments determine the reflectance), and within a factor of 2 generally.
Due to the limited duty cycle (10%) and the non-uniform coverage, sampling was highly skewed. Temporal sampling frequency also varied, resulting in potential errors. An in-depth overview of the entire history of the CZCS Project is included in Reference 4 below.
- "CZCS Sensor Guide Document", prepared by the Distributed Active Archive Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1995.
- "Ocean Color From Space", Prepared by the US Global Ocean Flux Study Office with contributions from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wood's Hole Oceanographic Institution, the University of Miami and theUniversity of Rhode Island. HTML version published by the Distributed Active Archive Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1995.
- "The Living Ocean: Observing Ocean Color From Space", NASA Publication PAM-554, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1993.
- "Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': A retrospective examination." R.H. Evans & H.R. Gordon, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.99. No. C4, pages 7293-7307, April 15, 1994.
- "Coastal Zone Color Scanner", European Space Research Institute, Frascati, Italy.
- Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Level 1 Data Product Users' Guide NASA TM 86203, S.P. Williams, E.F. Szajna and W.A. Hovis. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771. July, 1986, 53 pages.
- The April 15, 1994 issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research (Volume 99, Number C4) contains a Special Section entitled "Ocean Color From Space: A Coastal Zone Color Scanner Retrospective."
The Goddard DAAC provides a mirror site for the distribution of SEAPAK CZCS data processing software. We have also written a read program to help users get started with analysis of Level 1 CZCS data. Below are the software descriptions and ftp links to the software.
CZCS Level 1 Read Program
The level 1 CZCS data product is stored as raw binary data. The program we have written will dump selected data fields from selected data records found in a CZCS Level 1 data file. It will also dump selected data fields from the documentation records which precede and follow the data records.
SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis package that was developed at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The primary application of SEAPAK is for the processing and interpretation of Level 1 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. In addition, CZCS Level 1A and 2 DSP images can be converted to the SEAPAK format using the SEAPAK package. (DSP is image processing software developed at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences of the University of Miami.)
Two versions of the SEAPAK CZCS processing software are available free of charge online and on tape from the Goddard DAAC. PC-SEAPAK runs on PC-AT, 386, or 486 class machines. UNIX-SEAPAK operates only on SGI's Unix Workstation. Besides including most major programs in PC-SEAPAK to process CZCS and AVHRR satellite data, Unix-SEAPAK also includes programs to handle ancillary data.
Note: The DAAC is a mirror site to shark.gsfc.nasa.gov. We do not support the maintenance and development of SEAPAK. We will provide timely updates and information to directly contact the authors.
PC-SEAPAK runs on PC-AT, 386, or 486 class machines. UNIX-SEAPAK operates on SGI Unix Workstations only.
To be able to use all of PC-SEAPAK's graphics functions, you will need to have a Matrox graphics board installed on your PC. Even if you do not have this board, the whole PC-SEAPAK package should be installed. It will work on a PC without the board but the you won't be able to run the display related programs. To request a non-graphical version of PC-SEAPAK on diskettes, contact the Goddard DAAC Helpdesk: email@example.com. Copies of the 350 page PC-SEAPAK User's Guide are available online and in hardcopy from the Goddard DAAC Helpdesk. This documentation is intended to be used by both UNIX and PC customers and it is the only SEAPAK documentation available from the Goddard DAAC.
PC-SEAPAK User Guide
- The PC version of SEAPAK is available through FTP.
In this directory, you will find four compressed files and one program to decompress those files as well as three update files:
- The compressed file that contains all the PC-SEAPAK version 4.0 programs data base file (in 5-minute resolution)
- The compressed file that contains the eight CIA world data base files.
- The compressed file that contains nine PCTOMS data base files.
- The compressed file that contains HALO88 font files and the driver program for the MVP-AT image board
- The decompressing program to be used on PC to decompress those compressed zip files.
These update files have to be restored (in any temporary directory using 'pkunzip') and installed (copied) IN ORDER into the SEAPAK directory after you have installed the original PC-SEAPAK 4.0.
Download all of these files to the PC first. Then run PKUNZIP to decompress all the ZIP files. Type PKUNZIP at the DOS prompt and you will get a detailed description about how to use this command.
For example, to decompress all files in 'SEAPAK.ZIP' to the directory 'D:\SEAPAK', just type 'PKUNZIP SEAPAK.ZIP D:\SEAPAK'. All other compressed files should be decompressed the same way. It is recommended that you decompress different zip files into different directories. After all compressed files are restored, you need set up the SEAPAK environmental variable, modify SEAPAK.FIG file if necessary, run the programs SPKSETUP and INIT.
For further information, read SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT: SOFTWARE section in the PC-SEAPAK User's Guide.
- The UNIX version of SEAPAK is available through FTP.
The files 'ANNOUNCEMENT', 'README.SEAPAK.PLEASE!' in the UNIX SEAPAK directory contain information about how to install UNIX-SEAPAK. Because there is no UNIX-SEAPAK User's Guide available, UNIX SEAPAK users should request a copy of the PC-SEAPAK User's Guide from the Goddard DAAC Helpdesk: firstname.lastname@example.org.
If you have any problem or need assistance with installing or using SEAPAK, contact:
For more information on scientific applications of the SEAPAK and DSP image processing systems contact:
Dr. Charles McClain
SeaWiFS Project Scientist
Dr. Robert Evans,
University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine Sciences
Goddard DAAC Helpdesk NASA Goddard Space Flight Center DAAC The Goddard DAAC is the central archive and distribution facility responsible for providing access to the entire CZCS data set.
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt MD 20771 USA
(301) 614-5268 fax
Archive of the CZCS data set at the Goddard DAAC is complete. Ocean Color website documentation and access development is also nearing completion. Future activities will be dedicated to the support of SeaWiFs archive and distribution starting in calendar year 1997.
8mm tape (8200 and 8500 bpi)
4mm tape (60m and 90m) electronic transfer (ftp)
- Calibration: the adjustment or systematic standardization of the output of a quantitative measuring instrument or sensor.
Chlorophyll: any of a group of related green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms.
Contemporaneous: originating, existing, or occurring during the same interval of time.
Dynamic Range: the range between the maximum and minimum amount of input radiant energy that an instrument can measure.
Gelbstoffe: particulate matter, usually outflow sediment from rivers, which, when suspended in water, gives it a yellowish color. (from German: "yellow substance").
Infrared Light: electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths longer than red light (7700 angstroms) but less than radio waves (~.1 meter).
Nadir: the point on the Earth directly below an orbiting satellite.
Photosynthesis: the process by which chlorophyll-containing cells in green plants convert incident light to chemical energy and synthesize organic compounds from inorganic compounds, especially carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, with the simultaneous release of oxygen.
Phytoplankton: drifting, often microscopic oceanic plants which conduct the process of photosynthesis.
Primary productivity: the rate at which photosynthesis proceeds.
Radiometer: a device that detects and measures electromagnetic radiation.
Spatial Resolution: the size of the smallest object recognizable using the detector.
Spectral Band: a narrow range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Spectral Response: the relative amplitude of the response of a detector vs. the frequency of incident electromagnetic radiation.
Visible Light: electromagnetic radiation with wavelength in the 3900 to 7700 angstrom range.
- AVHRR: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
CZCS: Coastal Zone Color Scanner
DST: Data Support Team
EOSDIS: Earth Observing System Data and Information System
ESDIS: EOSDIS Data and Information System
ESRIN: European Space Research Institute
IFOV: Instaneous Field of View
MODIS: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Nimbus: NASA Meteorological Satellites (1 through 7) [not an acronym]
NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
SeaWiFS: Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor
- Version 2.0
- Version baselined on addition to the GES Controlled Documents List, April 15, 1998.